Biosynth blog provides ‘Hormones 101’ briefing

February 1st 2024

Staad, Switzerland: –Microbiology and organic fine biochemical specialist manufacturer and developer Biosynth AG has added to its growing list of blog references with its latest posting that provides a useful overview of the crucial role of hormones in human physiology.

The posting Peptide Hormones: Keeping Communication in Check reviews the key hormones that act as vital messengers and regulators in keeping the body’s metabolism functioning correctly, alongside other molecular mechanisms such as growth factors, cytokines and autacoid factors.

Distinguishing hormones

The article cautions that with these overlapping functions, caution must be exercised in labelling any particular molecule as a hormone and stresses the very different nature of the hormones produced in different parts of the body.

The post identifies and defines the main hormone groupings from the various identified categories of lipid derived hormones, peptide hormones and amino acid derivatives, all playing equally important roles in different regulatory systems. It then goes on to identify and discuss the main hormones involved in human medicine, with references to the extensive Biosynth research materials catalog.

The list of hormones discussed includes:

  • Lipid Hormones: mainly derived from cholesterol and diffused across plasma membranes, these take in steroid hormones such as estradiol, estrogen and testosterone, as well as aldosterone and cortisol. Compared to peptide hormones, steroid hormones have a greater half-life and stay in the circulatory systems for longer.
  • Amino Acid Derived Hormones: Derived from acids like tryptophan and tyrosine, these include epinephrine triggering the ‘fight or flight’ responses, norepinephrine produced by the adrenal glands, thyroxine from the thyroid gland, and Melatonin from the brain’s pineal gland, which plays such an important role in the regulation of sleep and mood.
  • Peptide Hormones: Composed of polypeptide chains of amino acids, these have a range of functions in energy homeostasis, metabolism regulation, appetite, reproduction, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems. Instead of diffusing through plasma membranes, peptide hormones bind to receptors on the surface of their target cells.

Insulin Related Peptide Hormones

A major section of the article deals with insulin as a prime example of a peptide hormone and its related hormones: Somatostatin, Human C-peptide, Secretin, Oxyntomodulin, Glucagon-37 (Porcine,), Obestatin, and Ghrelin.  It explains that these all interact with each other in various ways to regulate appetite and digestion.

The article also discusses the part played in iron, calcium and phosphate regulation by hormones such as Hepcidin and its variants, as well as the PTH Parathyroid Hormones and the C cell hormone Calcitonin.

Stress, Behavior and Reproduction

The final section of the blog examines the major role in regulating stress, behavior and reproduction played by hormones that originate in the brain’s hypothalamic pituitary gland, principally Corticotropin Release Factor (CRF), Oxytocin, and Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH), also known as Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH).

It concludes: “When exploring the diverse nature of peptide hormones, it is clear that their expansive roles is overwhelming. From their use as important research tools in the study of various physiological processes, signaling pathways, and developing new therapies for diseases, to their use as significant diagnostic markers in diagnostic assays and in medical therapeutics, hormones are without a doubt, critical to keeping our bodies communication in check.”

About Biosynth

Biosynth is a supplier of critical materials, securing life science supply chains with global research, manufacturing, and distribution facilities. Supplying the pharmaceutical and diagnostic sectors; where Chemistry meets Biology, Products meet Services and Innovation meets Quality, Biosynth is at the Edge of Innovation.

With an unrivaled research product portfolio of over a million products and end-to-end manufacturing services, Biosynth’s expertise and capability spans Complex Chemicals, Peptides, and Key Biologics, all from one trusted partner.  Headquartered in Staad, Switzerland, Biosynth is owned amongst others by KKR, Ampersand Capital Partners, and management.

Find out more about Biosynth at


Click on Peptide Hormones: Keeping Communication in Check to read full article.
Click on Biosynth Endocrinology Catalog for further information.

Biosynth blog provides ‘Hormones 101’ briefing
Biosynth blog provides ‘Hormones 101’ briefing

The internalization of ferroportin when bound to Hepcidin.

Biosynth blog provides ‘Hormones 101’ briefing

The hypothalamus gland in the brain produces the key mood/behavior regulating hormones CRF, Oxytocin and LH-RH.

Biosynth blog provides ‘Hormones 101’ briefing

The pancreas is the origin for several important insulin-related hormones.